Carbon dating oil paintings
The earliest forms of panel painting were dossals (altar backs), altar fronts and crucifixes.All were painted with religious images, commonly the Christ or the Virgin, with the saints appropriate to the dedication of the church, and the local town or diocese, or to the donor.But, for example, The National Gallery in London has two Goya portraits on panel.
The 13th and 14th centuries in Italy were a great period of panel painting, mostly altarpieces or other religious works.
Secular art opened the way to the creation of chests, painted beds, birth trays and other furniture.
Many such works are now detached and hung framed on walls in museums.
The Severan Tondo, also from Egypt (about 200AD) is one of the handful of non-funerary Graeco-Roman specimens to survive.
Wood has always been the normal support for the Icons of Byzantine art and the later Orthodox traditions, the earliest of which (all in Saint Catherine's Monastery) date from the 5th or 6th centuries, and are the oldest panel paintings which seem to be of the highest contemporary quality.